Jen–Can you post the references to the studies you mentioned? I would like to read them in comparison to the work JL Derrick has done on low self-esteem and addiction.DG


Several of the studies mentioned are in fact by JL Derrick!

References  (if you follow the links in the prior entry, they will take you to either abstracts or pdfs of the articles):

Gardner, W. L., & Knowles, M. L. (2008). Love makes you real: Favorite television characters are perceived as “real” in a social facilitation paradigm. Social Cognition26(2), 156-168.

Derrick, J. L., Gabriel, S., & Tippin, B. (2008). Parasocial relationships and self‐discrepancies: Faux relationships have benefits for low self‐esteem individuals. Personal relationships15(2), 261-280.

Derrick, J. L., Gabriel, S., & Hugenberg, K. (2009). Social surrogacy: How favored television programs provide the experience of belonging. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology45(2), 352-362.

Eyal, K., & Cohen, J. (2006). When good friends say goodbye: A parasocial breakup study. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media50(3), 502-523.

Kidd, D. C., & Castano, E. (2013). Reading literary fiction improves theory of mind. Science342(6156), 377-380.

Fong, K., Mullin, J. B., & Mar, R. A. (2013). What you read matters: The role of fiction genre in predicting interpersonal sensitivity. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts7(4), 370.

Further Reading:

Gabriel, S., & Young, A. F. (2011). Becoming a Vampire Without Being Bitten The Narrative Collective-Assimilation Hypothesis. Psychological science,22(8), 990-994.

Derrick, J. L. (2013). Energized by Television Familiar Fictional Worlds Restore Self-Control. Social Psychological and Personality Science4(3), 299-307.

Zunshine, L. (2006). Why we read fiction: Theory of mind and the novel. Ohio State University Press.

Zunshine, L. (2008). Theory of mind and fictions of embodied transparency.Narrative16(1), 65-92.

Mar, R. A., & Oatley, K. (2008). The function of fiction is the abstraction and simulation of social experience. Perspectives on psychological science3(3), 173-192.

Johnson, D. R. (2012). Transportation into a story increases empathy, prosocial behavior, and perceptual bias toward fearful expressions. Personality and Individual Differences52(2), 150-155.

Sestir, M., & Green, M. C. (2010). You are who you watch: Identification and transportation effects on temporary self-concept. Social Influence5(4), 272-288.

De Backer, C. J. (2012). Blinded by the starlight: An evolutionary framework for studying celebrity culture and fandom. Review of General Psychology16(2), 144.

Young, A. F., Gabriel, S., & Hollar, J. L. (2013). Batman to the rescue! The protective effects of parasocial relationships with muscular superheroes on men’s body image. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology49(1), 173-177.

Awesome! thanks. Have you read the (very thin) literature on the decline of reader interest in both leisure and academic reading in elementary students? The implications on empathy and emotional growth are intriguing, especially in light of Mar and Oatley above. How does the lack of reading affect students’ emotional growth as they more into middle and high school, especially if reading interest continues its downward trend? Something to ponder.

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